Immunofixation - blood
Serum immunofixation is a lab test to identify proteins called immunoglobulins in blood. Too much of the same immunoglobulin is usually due to cancer.
How the test is performed
A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture
Immunofixation uses antibodies to identify the types of proteins or antibodies separated by protein electrophoresis .
How to prepare for the test
There is no special preparation for this test.
How the test will feel
When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain, while others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing.
Why the test is performed
This test is most often used to check the levels of certain antibodies associated with multiple myeloma and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia .Those antibodies include IgG , IgM , IgA , lambda light chain forms, and kappa light chain forms.
Immunofixation has also been used to study changes in protein structure (for example, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ), and in the genetic typing of alpha-1 antitrypsin .
A normal or negative result means no monclonal immunglobulins are seen in the blood sample.
What abnormal results mean
An abnormal result may be due to:
- Monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance
- Multiple myeloma
- Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia
- Other cancers
What the risks are
There is very little risk involved with having your blood taken. Veins and arteries vary in size from one patient to another and from one side of the body to the other. Taking blood from some people may be more difficult than from others.
Other risks associated with having blood drawn are slight but may include:
- Excessive bleeding
- Fainting or feeling lightheaded
- Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin)
- Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)
McPherson RA, Massey HD. Laboratory evaluation ofimmunoglobulin function and humoral immunity. In McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. . 22nd ed. Philadelphia,Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 46.
Perry MC. Plasma cell disorders. In Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 193.