Choriocarcinoma is a quick-growing form of cancer that occurs in a woman's uterus (womb). The abnormal cells start in the tissue that would normally become the placenta, the organ that develops during pregnancy to feed the fetus.
Choriocarcinoma is a type of gestational trophoblastic disease.
Chorioblastoma; Trophoblastic tumor; Chorioepithelioma; Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Choriocarcinoma is an uncommon, but very often curable cancer that occurs during pregnancy. A baby may or may not develop in these types of pregnancy.
The cancer may occur after a normal pregnancy. However, it most often occurs with a complete hydatidiform mole . The abnormal tissue from the mole can continue to grow even after it is removed, and can turn into cancer. About half of all women with a choriocarcinoma had a hydatidiform mole, or molar pregnancy.
Choriocarcinomas may also occur after an early pregnancy that doesn't continue (miscarriage), ectopic pregnancy , or genital tumor .
A possible symptom is vaginal bleeding in a woman who recently had a hydatidiform mole or pregnancy.
Other symptoms may include:
- Irregular vaginal bleeding
Signs and tests
A pregnancy test will be positive even if you are not pregnant. Pregnancy hormone (HCG) levels will be high.
A pelvic exam may show uterine swelling or a tumor.
Blood tests that may be done include:
Imaging tests that may be done include:
You should be carefully monitored after a hydatidiform mole or at the end of a pregnancy. Getting diagnosed with choriocarcinoma early can improve the outcome.
After you are diagnosed, a careful history and exam will be done to make sure the cancer has not spread to other organs. Chemotherapy is the main type of treatment.
A hysterectomy and radiation therapy are rarely needed.
For additional information, see cancer resources .
Most women whose cancer has not spread can be cured and will still be able to have children. A choriocarcinoma may come back within a few months to 3 years after treatment.
The condition is harder to cure if the cancer has spread and one or more of the following happens:
- Disease spreads to the liver or brain
- Pregnancy hormone (HCG) level is greater than 40,000 mIU/mL when treatment begins
- Cancer returns after having chemotherapy
- Symptoms or pregnancy occurred for more than 4 months before treatment began
- Choriocarcinoma occurred after a pregnancy that resulted in the birth of a child
Many women (about 70%) who have a poor outlook at first go into remission (a disease-free state).
Calling your health care provider
Call for an appointment with your health care provider if you develop symptoms within 1 year after a hydatidiform mole or pregnancy.
Goldstein DP, Berkowitz RS. Gestational trophoblastic disease. In: Abeloff MD, Armitage JO, Niederhuber JE, Kastan MB, McKenna WG, eds. . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2008:chap 94.
McGee J, Covens A. Gestational trophoblastic disease: hydatidiform mole, nonmetastatic and metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumor: diagnosis and management. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2012:chap 35.
Braunstein GD. Endocrine changes in pregnancy. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. , 12th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 21.