Generalized tonic-clonic seizure
Generalized tonic-clonic seizure is a seizure that involves the entire body. It is also called grand mal seizure. The terms seizure , convulsion, or epilepsy are most often associated with generalized tonic-clonic seizures.
Seizure - tonic-clonic; Seizure - grand mal; Grand mal seizure; Seizure - generalized
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Generalized tonic-clonic seizures may occur in people of any age. They may occur once (single episode), or as part of a repeated, chronic condition (epilepsy). Some seizures are due to psychological problems (psychogenic).
Many patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures have vision, taste, smell, or sensory changes, hallucinations, or dizziness before the seizure. This is called an aura.
The seizures usually involve rigid muscles , followed by violent muscle contractions , and loss of alertness (consciousness ).Other symptoms that occur during the seizure may include:
- Biting the cheek or tongue
- Clenched teeth or jaw
- Loss of urine or stool control (incontinence)
- or Stopped breathing
- Blue skin color
After the seizure, the person may have:
- Normal breathing
- Sleepiness that lasts for 1 hour or longer
- Loss of memory (amnesia) regarding events surrounding the seizure episode
- Weakness of one side of the body for a few minutes to a few hours following seizure (called Todd paralysis)
For more information about diagnosis and treatment, see:
Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 67.
Bodde NMG, Brooks JL, Baker GA, et al. Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures—diagnostic issues: a critical review. . 2009;111:1–9.