Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia
pneumonia is a fungal infection of the lungs. The disease used to be called .
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
This type of pneumonia is caused by the fungus . This fungus is common in the environment and does not cause illness in healthy people.
However, it can cause a lung infection in people with a weakened immune system due to:
- Chronic use of corticosteroids or other medications that weaken the immune system
- Organ or bone marrow transplant
was a relatively rare infection before the AIDS epidemic. Before the use of preventive antibiotics for the condition, most people in the United States with advanced AIDS would develop it.
Pneumocystis pneumonia in those with AIDS usually develops slowly over days to weeks or even months, and is less severe. People with pneumocystis pneumonia who do not have AIDS usually get sick faster and are more acutely ill.
- Cough -- often mild and dry
- Rapid breathing
- Shortness of breath -- especially with activity (exertion)
Signs and tests
Antibiotics can be given by mouth (orally) or through a vein (intravenously ), depending on the severity of the illness.
People with low oxygen levels and moderate to severe disease are often prescribed corticosteroids as well.
Pneumocystis pneumonia can be life threatening, causing respiratory failure that can lead to death. People with this condition need early and effective treatment. For moderate to severe pneumocystis pneumonia in people with AIDS, the short term use of corticosteroids has decreased death.
Calling your health care provider
If you have a weakened immune system due to AIDS, cancer, transplantation, or corticosteroid use, call your doctor if you develop a cough, fever, or shortness of breath.
Many infections can lead to similar symptoms. Your health care provider can help rule out opportunistic infections such as pneumocystis.
Preventive therapy is recommended for:
- Patients with AIDS who have CD4 counts below 200
- Bone marrow transplant recipients
- Organ transplant recipients
- People who take long-term, high-dose corticosteroids
- People who have had previous episodes of this infection
Feinberg JE. Pneumocystis pneumonia. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 362.