Malignant hypertension


Malignant hypertension is very high blood pressure that comes on suddenly and quickly. The lower (diastolic) blood pressure reading, which is normally around 80 mmHg, is often above 130 mmHg.

Alternative Names

Accelerated hypertension; Arteriolar nephrosclerosis; Nephrosclerosis - arteriolar; Hypertension - malignant; High blood pressure - malignant

Causes, incidence, and risk factors

The disorder affects about 1% of people with high blood pressure, including both children and adults. It is more common in younger adults, especially African-American men.

It also occurs in people with:

You are at high risk for malignant hypertension if you have had:


Signs and tests

Malignant hypertension is a medical emergency.

A physical exam commonly shows:

  • Extremely high blood pressure
  • Swelling in the lower legs and feet
  • Abnormal heart sounds and fluid in the lungs
  • Changes in thinking, sensation, muscle ability, and reflexes

An eye examination will reveal changes that indicate high blood pressure, including:

  • Bleeding of the retina
  • Narrowing of the blood vessels in the eye area
  • Swelling of the optic nerve
  • Other problems with the retina

Kidney failure, as well as other complications, may develop.

Tests to determine damage to the kidneys may include:

A chest x-ray may show congestion in the lung and an enlarged heart.

This disease may also affect the results of the following tests:


You will need to stay in the hospital until the severe high blood pressure is under control. Medications will be given through a vein to reduce your blood pressure.

If there is fluid in your lungs, you will be given medicines called diuretics, which help the body remove fluid. Your doctor will consider giving you medications to protect the heart if there is evidence of heart damage.

After the severe high blood pressure is brought under control, blood pressure medicines taken by mouth can control blood pressure. Your medication may need to be changed sometimes. High blood pressure can be difficult to control.

Support Groups

Expectations (prognosis)

Many body systems are at serious risk from the extreme rise in blood pressure. Many organs, including the brain, eyes, blood vessels, heart, and kidneys may be damaged.

The blood vessels of the kidney are very likely to be damaged by pressure. Kidney failure may develop, which may be permanent and need dialysis (kidney machine).

If treated right away, malignant hypertension can often be controlled without causing permanent problems. If it is not treated right away, complications may be severe and life-threatening.


  • Brain damage
  • Heart damage, including:
  • Kidney failure
  • Permanent blindness
  • (fluid in the lungs)Pulmonary edema

Calling your health care provider

Go to the emergency room or call your local emergency number (such as 911) if you have symptoms of malignant hypertension. This is an emergency condition and it can be life-threatening.

Call your health care provider if you know you have poorly controlled high blood pressure.


If you have high blood pressure, carefully monitor your blood pressure and take your medicines properly to help reduce the risk. Eat a healthy diet that is low in salt and fat.


Badr KF, Brenner BM. Vascular injury to the kidney. In: Fauci A , Kasper D, Longo DL, et al, eds. . 17th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill; 2008:chap 280.

Shayne P, Stettner E. Hypertension. In: Wolfson AB, Hendey GW, Ling LJ, et al, eds. . 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009:chap 89.

Encyclopedia content is provided as information only and not intended to replace the advice and instruction from your personal physician.