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Cytology Exam of Pleural Fluid

Definition

A cytology examination of pleural fluid is a laboratory test to detect cancerous cells in the pleural space, the area that surrounds the lungs.

See: Cytologic evaluation

Alternative Names

Pleural fluid cytology

How the Test is Performed

A sample of fluid from the pleural space is needed. For information on how the sample is obtained, see: Thoracentesis.

The fluid sample is sent to a laboratory where it is examined under the microscope to determine what the cells look like, and whether they are abnormal. "Cytology" refers to the study of cells.

How to Prepare for the Test

The laboratory test requires no preparation. For information on how to prepare for removal of the fluid sample, see: Thoracentesis

How the Test Will Feel

See: Thoracentesis

Why the Test is Performed

A cytology exam is used to look for cancer and precancerous cells. Your doctor may order a cytology examination of pleural fluid if you have signs of fluid buildup in the pleural space, a condition called pleural effusion. The test may also be done if you have signs of lung cancer.

Normal Results

Normal cells are seen.

What Abnormal Results Mean

In an abnormal test, there are cancerous (malignant) cells. This may mean there is a cancerous tumor. This test most often detects:

Risks

There are no risks involved with a cytology exam.

For information risks related to the procedure to remove a sample of pleural fluid, see: Thoracentesis

References

Celli BR. Diseases of the diaphragm, chest wall, pleura, and mediastinum. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 100.