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Mesothelioma - Malignant

Definition

Malignant mesothelioma is an uncommon cancerous tumor of the lining of the lung and chest cavity (pleura) or lining of the abdomen (peritoneum) that is typically due to long-term asbestos exposure.

Alternative Names

Malignant mesothelioma

Causes

Long-term exposure to asbestos -- a fire-resistant material -- is the biggest risk factor. Asbestos was once commonly found in insulation, ceiling and roofing vinyls, cement, and automotive brake materials. Although many asbestos workers smoked, experts do not believe smoking itself is a cause of this condition.

Malignant mesothelioma affects men more often than women. The average age at diagnosis is 60.

Symptoms

Symptoms may not appear until 20 - 50 years or longer after exposure to asbestos, and may include:

Exams and Tests

Mesotheliomas are often hard to diagnose under the microscope. It can be hard to distinguish between this disease and similar conditions and tumors.

Treatment

Malignant mesothelioma is a difficult cancer to treat.

There is usually no cure, unless the disease is found extremely early and the tumor can be completely removed with surgery. However, most of the time at diagnosis, the disease is too advanced for surgery. Chemotherapy or radiation may be used to reduce symptoms. Combining certain chemotherapy drugs may help decrease symptoms, but it will not cure the cancer.

Untreated, the average malignant mesothelioma patient survives 9 months.

Consider participating in a clinical trial (test of new treatments), which may give you more treatment options.

Pain relief, oxygen, and other supportive treatments may also help relieve symptoms.

Support Groups

You can ease the stress of illness by joining a support group where members share common experiences and problems.

Outlook (Prognosis)

The average survival time varies from 4 - 18 months. However, your outlook depends on:

  • The stage of the tumor
  • Your age and general health
  • Whether surgery is an option
  • Your response to treatment

Possible Complications

The tumor can quickly spread to other organs.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call for an appointment with your health care provider if you have symptoms of malignant mesothelioma.

Prevention

Avoid exposure to asbestos.

References

National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Clinical practice guidelines in oncology. Malignant pleural mesothelioma. v.1.2010.

Lewis RL. Lung cancer and other pulmonary neoplasms. In Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 201.